Margilan is a city located in the east of Uzbekistan and in the south part of Fergana valley, 10-12 kilometers from Fergana city.
The first written data about Margilan is referred to the X century. At that time the city was called “Marginon” and later both names were used equally.
There is no certain information about the origin of the name of the city. Some toponymic specialists suppose that the name “Margilan” has come into existence from the word “marg” which means “meadow”, “grassland”. But there is another European legend which relates to the origination of the city name. According to it, the origin of “Margilan” formed from two words “murg” (means “chicken” in Persian) and “non” (means “bread” in Persian) which Alexander the Great had for lunch.
By the information in the book written by Ibrat the city was founded in 883. Some other trustworthy information states that Margilan was one of the important stops on the Silk Road. The archeological research in the old part of Margilan showed that Margilan had been founded 2000 years before. By local evidences there were 12 gates of the city. Local people mainly dealt with weaving satin which is equal to silk fabric named “atlas” in Uzbek. The silk fabrics of Margilan were mostly bought by the traders of Egypt, Iran, Greece, Kashgar and China. In various periods the city was under the control of Temurids, Shaibanids and last it was a part of the Khanate of Kokand. It was captured by Russian troops in 1875. Later there were some insurrections of the inhabitants of the city. In 1926 it turned into a town of Fergana region and later it became a district town.
In Margilan handicraftsmen were very prosperous in the production of satin exactly “khan atlas” from old times. Even one can get acquainted with all stages of making process of «han atlas» during the excursion to the factory “Yodgorlik” which means «donation» translated into English from Uzbek. This is the one and alone factory which has still manual mode working from its early beginning.
In addition the travelers and guests of Margilan can visit to some architectural monuments which have still been preserved such as:
- Complex of Pir Siddiq – “Kaptarlik” (XVIII c);
- Mausoleum of Khoja Magiz (XVIII c);
- Chokar Mosque (XIX c);
- Madrasah Said Ahmad-Khoja (XIX c);
- Toronbazaar Mosque (XIX c).